Magazines can be general interest for mainstream audiences or specialist interest for niche audiences. Magazines for mainstream audiences include:
- Four Four Two
- Q Magazine
Magazines produced for niche audiences include:
- Homes and Antiques
- Horse and Hound
- Classic Land Rover Magazine
Magazines are produced in a wide range of subgenres with a specific focus on particular subjects such as health, food, cinema, video games or music.
Magazine publishers are often part of huge international media organisations which also produce newspapers, as well as radio and television content.
There are some exceptions, such as The Big Issue or Private Eye, which are published independently.
Major magazine publishers include:
|Time Inc UK||Formerly owned by Time Warner, it produces titles such as Now Magazine, Marie Claire and NME.|
|Bauer||A German company, who produce magazines such as Empire, Closer and Take a Break.|
|Condé Nast||They produce magazines such as Vogue, Glamour and GQ.|
|The National Magazine Company||Owned by Hearst, they produce magazines such as Cosmopolitan, Esquire and Men's Health.|
|BBC Magazines||BBC magazines are spin-offs from successful BBC shows, including Sherlock, Gardener's World and Top Gear.|
These publishers produce many more magazines than those listed above, as well as multiple editions of the same title: Cosmopolitan, for example, has 59 editions worldwide in multiple languages.
This allows a publisher to focus its content on target audiences in any specific region of the world.
Magazines are often associated with 'me time', and are purchased with disposable income.
They are expensive to produce, however the cover price is subsidised by advertisers who use magazines to promote products. Advertising is crucial to the magazine industry, without it, many titles would fold.
The magazine's readership demographic determines the type of advertiser who will use it to promote products.
A magazine like Vogue, which targets female readers, would not be the place for promoting products for men.
A better magazine for this advertiser would be GQ or Esquire; these are magazines which are targeted at a male audience interested in men's fashion and lifestyle.
Successful magazines with large readerships can charge advertisers a lot of money for promotional space.
Your practical coursework project (the pre-production and production piece combined) is worth around 40% of your total mark (check with your teacher for your exam board's specs). As well as being a new way of working for most of you, it is an opportunity to find out first hand exactly what the problems are facing real-life media producers, and it will give you an invaluable insight into production processes across all media. The work you do on this project will hopefully give you knowledge about many different aspects of the media, and do not be afraid to use what you learn here when answering questions from other sections of the syllabus. You may choose to work as part of a group, or create an individual project.
With your practical project, be it audio, audio-visual, web or print-based, keep the following in mind at all times:
- Who are my AUDIENCE?
- What is the PURPOSE of this text?
Media production is all about communicating ideas, and before you start, you have to be absolutely clear what those ideas are and who you are communicating them to. You can learn more about the different characteristics of media forms on this section of Mediaknowall, which gives more details about Advertising, Animation, Comics, Movies, Newspapers and TV shows.
IF YOU FAIL TO PLAN YOU PLAN TO FAIL
This is a vital stage, and the more work you do here, the easier you will find your task later on. You should fill out a proposal form and research your potential audience.
The more information you can gather about comparable media texts and what your audience want/don't want the better! If you're making a music video, watch lots of music videos. Which ones won awards? Which ones attracted a lot of criticism? Which ones attracted attention to the artist? Which ones sold more recordings? If you're designing a magazine, look at other magazines aimed at your market. Who or what do they usually put on the front cover? What type of stories do they feature? What are their regular columns/pages?
A good understanding of genre and the conventions of that genre helps here. Think of conventions as a road map you can follow - but don't forget to be creative and original also.
Good media production is about efficient decision-making, and if you make your decisions now (based on good evidence and ideas) you will find the production process simply a matter of following them through.
Before you start doing anything you need to research your audience. You need to know exactly what it is they want from your media text so you can provide it! The most effective way to get the data that you need is to design and hand out a questionnaire.
Your questions and responses should guide you in the direction that you take - for instance, you may be surprised at the audience's level of background knowledge about your subject (or lack of it) and this will help you in deciding on what your establishing shots should be. it will also help you plan the questions for any interviews.
- If you are planning a photo-essay, then you should come up with a list of the shots that you want to take. Think about camera angles and how you want your audience to read your picture.
- If you are planning a video or animation then you will need to complete a storyboard, so that you know which shots you need. Think carefully about how one shot links into another. Camera angles and shots are vital - think about how you can effectively use them to communicate meaning - in advance! For more help with your storyboard, try
- 500 Storyboard Tutorials & Resources from Filmmaker IQ
If you have done your planning well, you should find this relatively straightforward. Although every project will face different problems, here are a few top tips:
- Take notes as you work - you will find it useful to refer to them later
- Examine all footage as you go, and allow yourself time for reshooting.
- Be critical of your work at this stage, and redo anything that you are not happy with. Each element should come up to the same high standards
- If something goes wrong - learn from your mistakes!!! Don't agonise over them.
- Patience is a virtue when using the computer. You have to spend time with the software, and don't be afraid to experiment - or ask
This can be the most time-consuming part of the process. Allow for this, but do be aware that you should not waste time. Limit the time you spend on each shot/page. Remember that 'real' media producers work within very tight deadlines, and cannot spend hours and hours trying to get everything absolutely perfect. If something doesn't look right, don't be afraid to cut it out altogether. Also don't be afraid to ask for help, but ensure you have a specific question, such as "how do I make it look like..." rather than presenting a general wail "It looks all wrong..."
You need to specify an audience for your photo-essay, not just in terms of readership, but also suggesting a magazine or newspaper which might publish it. You then need to say how your work conforms to that magazine/newspaper's style and content. You also need to critically evaluate your images. Are there any you used because you liked the content but weren't altogether happy with the quality? How did you balance this out? Were there any you had to retake? Was this difficult to do?
Again, you need to specify audience, whether you're making a music video, the title sequence for a drama show, or a documentary. How will you let you audience know that your video is for them, within the very first few seconds?
DocumentaryWould your documentary make a suitable feature within a longer programme, or does it stand alone? You have to show an awareness that, because of the limited nature of our video facilities, you could not make a documentary with a professional finish it is not expected to compete with National Geographic! However, how does your documentary work as community, or low budget TV? Do you think it is an effective way of getting your voice heard/presenting the facts? If you were able to iron out some of the technical problems what would they be? Sound? The degeneration of quality each time you copied the tape?
You have a good knowledge of the potential audience for animation, and have selected your source story with that in mind. Now you have to consider how well your animation works. Obviously it is your first attempt, so you cannot compare it to the work of skilled Disney animators with a lifetime's experience who, these days, seem to be aiming for absolute realism. However, you have looked at the work of other, experimental and early animators, and you can evaluate how well your project works by looking at the following:
- the standard of your drawing/use of image manipulation software
- the number of drawings you did in order to achieve the requisite frames per second
- your use of colour
- how well dialogue and sound effects coincide with images
- how effectively the story is told through moving images
You also need to think about what your project has taught you about the work of an animator. You have studied the films - now do you have a better appreciation of what goes into the creation of an animated feature?
How has using a computer helped you? Do you have any further insight on how computers may help top animation studios produce movies?
Finally, do you think an audience would enjoy watching your animation extract, and want to see more? If not, why not? Be honest - are you not a talented enough artist or did you not spend enough time developing your ideas.