To cite more than one author
Include both names in the order in which they appear on the title page:
(Gerster & Basset 1987) or:
Gerster and Basset (1987) assert that...
List of references
Gerster, R & Basset, J 1991, Seizures of youth: the sixties and Australia, Hyland House, Melbourne.
To cite more than three authors
Use the surname of the first author and et al. ('and others') in the text:
Leeder et al. (1996, p. 78) argued ... or:
(Leeder et al. 1996)
List of references
Leeder, SR, Dobson, AJ, Gibbers, RW, Patel, NK, Matthews, PS, Williams DW & Mariot, DL 1996, The Australian film industry, Dominion Press, Adelaide.
Don't use et al, in the list of references. List all the authors i the order in which they appear on the title page.
Citing a direct quote
It is essential to include the author name, publication year and page number/s when incorporating a direct quotation into a sentence. Use single quotation marks to enclose short quotations (sentence fragments or sentences which are less than 30 words). Fit quotations within your sentences, making sure the sentences are grammatically correct.
When Ladkin (2011, p. 1136) suggests that knowledge of tourism and hospitality labour ‘clearly has a contribution to make to current wider societal debates’ she is, as we are, reflecting on the shifting phenomenon of hospitality work.
A direct quote that is more than 30 words long is usually indented from the text margin in a block format and use a one size smaller font in single line spacing. Quotation marks are not needed.
New institutional studies of organisations in the 1970s and 1980s are largely characterised by an emphasis on diffusion, isomorphism, and decoupling:
The new institutionalism in organisation theory and sociology comprises a rejection of rational-actor models, and interest in institutions as independent variables, a turn towards cognitive and cultural explanations, and an interest in properties of supra individual units of analysis that cannot be reduced to aggregations or direct consequences of individuals' attributes or motives. (DiMaggio & Powell 1991, p. 8)
Modifying a direct quote
If you need to omit a word or words from a quote, indicate this with an ellipsis (three dots) with a space before and after the ellipsis ( ... ). A direct quote should neither start nor end with an ellipsis. Words should only be omitted from a quote if they are superfluous to the reason why you are using the quote and the meaning of the quote is not affected by the change.
For example (in a block quote):
The modernist view of the individual voice has been debated:
As with an early modernist like Lautréamont ... the subject or “character” is always an unstable collective, perpetually on the make, on trial and in degeneration, as much as it is in productive process, riven by contradiction and interruption, and by virtue of the textual mosaic, it hosts a crazed polyphony with no “originary” voice. (Campbell 2014, pp.157)
If you need to add a word or words to a quote, or change the capitalisation of a word to fit with your syntax, put the word(s)/letter in square brackets [ ]. Words should only be added to a quote for explanatory reasons (e.g. a name might be added to explain who a pronoun is referencing).
The church is not the only setting where the soul may be nurtured, as '[t]he soul also finds sustenance in more domestic settings, like the family home' (Jones 1998, p. 89).
If you need to indicate a misspelling, grammatical error or lack of inclusive language, insert the word [sic] (meaning so or thus) in square brackets immediately following the error but do not change the error in the quote.
For example (non-inclusive language):
According to Havelock (1986, p. 63), the written word can be looked at as an extension of conversation where the author ‘writes down what he [sic] is saying so that another person can read what he [sic] says instead of just hearing it.’
For example (spelling):
The claim that ‘confiscation of these lands was both illegal and sacrilegious [sic]’ takes the approach that the church should be involved in these decisions (Hamilton & Strier 1996, p. 165).
See also the following Academic Skills quick guides:
How to include direct quotations in your writing
Blending direct quotations into your writing
How to define and use concepts in your writing