Oumm3203 Assignment

 

OUMM3203 PROFESSIONAL ETHICS

1.0Introduction

Bribery is an act of giving money or gift giving that alters the behavior of the recipient.Bribery constitutes a crime and is defined by Black's Law Dictionary as the offering, giving,receiving, or soliciting of any item of value to influence the actions of an official or other personin charge of a public or legal duty.The bribe is the gift bestowed to influence the recipient's conduct. It may be any money,good, right in action, property, preferment, privilege, emolument, object of value, advantage, or merely a promise or undertaking to induce or influence the action, vote, or influence of a personin an official or public capacity.In economics, the bribe has been described as rent. Bribery in bureaucracy has beenviewed as a reason for the higher cost of production of goods and services.

1.1Forms of bribery

Many types of bribes exist: tip, gift, sop, perk, skim, favor, discount, waived fee/ticket,free food, free ad, free trip, free tickets, sweetheart deal, kickback/payback, funding, inflated saleof an object or property, lucrative contract, donation, campaign contribution, fundraiser,sponsorship/backing, higher paying job, stock options, secret commission, or promotion (rise of  position/rank).One must be careful of differing social and cultural norms when examining bribery.Expectations of when a monetary transaction is appropriate can differ from place to place.Political campaign contributions in the form of cash, for example, are considered criminal acts of  bribery in some countries, while in the United States, provided they adhere to election law, arelegal. Tipping, for example, is considered bribery in some societies, while in others the twoconcepts may not be interchangeable.In some Spanish-speaking countries, bribes are referred to as "mordida" (literally, "bite");in Arab countries they are Baksheesh or Bakshish. However, Bakshish is more akin to tipping.French-speaking countries often use the expressions "dessous-de-table" ("under-the-table"commissions), "pot-de-vin" (literally, "wine-pot"), or "commission occulte" ("secretcommission" or "kickback"). While the last two expressions contain inherently a negative1

 

OUMM3203 PROFESSIONAL ETHICS

Apa-apa jawatan, kebesaran, pekerjaan, kontrak pekerjaan atau perkhidmatan, danapa-apa perjanjian untuk memberikan pekerjaan atau memberikan perkhidmatanatas apa-apa sifat;

Apa-apa bayaran, pelepasan, penunaian atau penyelesaian apa-apa pinjaman,obligasi atau liabiliti lain, sama ada keseluruhannya atau sebahagian daripadanya;

Apa-apa jenis balasan berharga, apa-apa diskaun, komisen, rebat, bonus, potonganatau peratusan;

Apa-apa perbuatan menahan diri daripada menuntut apa-apa wang atau nilai wangatau benda berharga;

Apa-apa jenis perkhidmatan atau pertolongan lain, seperti perlindungan daripadaapa-apa penalti atau ketidakupayaan yang dikenakan atau yang dikhuatiri ataudaripada apa-apa tindakan atau prosiding yang bersifat tatatertib, sivil atau jenayah, sama ada atau tidak sudah dimulakan, dan termasuk penggunaan ataumenahan diri daripada menggunakan apa-apa hak atau apa-apa kuasa ataukewajipan rasmi;Biasanya, rasuah dijadikan sebagai salah satu jalan pintas seseorang untuk mengecapi kehidupan mewah atau dengan erti kata lain mahu menjadi kaya dalam masasingkat. Kebiasaannya orang yang melakukan budaya ini tidak memikirkan kesan buruk yang akan terjadi, sebaliknya mereka hanya memikirkan keuntungan kepada diri mereka.Perbuatan rasuah ini adalah perbuatan yang sangat keji dan berdosa. Mereka yangterjebak dalam budaya rasuah akan memperoleh balasan yang setimpal dengan perbuatanmereka ini.Dalam skop yang luas, rasuah "politik" bermaksud penyalahgunaan jawatanawam untuk kepentingan peribadi. Semua bentuk pemerintahan dan organisasi pastiterdapat perilaku rasuah, sama ada sedar atau tidak. Cuma berat (kes) berbeza-beza:daripada yang paling ringan dalam bentuk penggunaan pengaruh dan sokongan untuk memberi dan menerima pertolongan, hingga kepada rasuah yang sudah dianggap satu"prosedur rasmi", dan sebagainya. Kemuncak segala rasuah ialah satu keadaan yang3

0 Replies to “Oumm3203 Assignment”

Lascia un Commento

L'indirizzo email non verrà pubblicato. I campi obbligatori sono contrassegnati *